Pvt. Alexander S Stamper
Alexander S Stamper name: Stamper, Alexander S
aka:  Stamfer, Alex 
Rank: Pvt. 
Branch: Union 
Regiment: 3rd Regiment, United States Colored Heavy Artillery
Cemetery: Oakhill G.A.R. Cemetery, Janesville, Rock, Wisconsin 
Sec-plot: 99-16-3 
Service: May 1864 - 1865
Birth: 84 y 4m Tennesee
Death: 7/28/1926 Prob. Janesville, Rock, Wisconsin
Notes: 1870 in Union, Rock, Wisconsin listed as Mulatto b. in Tennesee. No wife shown. 1880 wife wife Annie Smith Stamper, born about abt 1852 in Missouri. Her mother's name noted as Eliza, black born about abt 1828 in Santa Cruz. In 1920, he and his wife are both still alive living in Janesville, Rock, Wisconsin. The WSHS shows Alexader married Mary Ann Smith Dec 04 1878 in Rock County Wisconsin. Son Fred was born Oct 27 1879. He may have had two sons that died young, Alexander F b. Jan 25 1881 and Alexander M b. Dec 20 1885, both in Rock County, Wisconsin.
 
 
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The Wisconsin muster rolls incorectly state he was in the 49th USCI whereas Govt. records and his headstone show he was in the 3rd USCHA.

On the 1890 veterans schedule, Alex states he served in the 16th Missouri for 10 months. The schedule reads Heavy Artillery but MO had no 16 Heavy Artillery. He begins service in the 3rd US Colored Heavy Artillery and records show he transferred in May of 1864, the same as his enlistment date. Chances are he was living in Missouri when he enlisted.

Since he would be required to join a "colored" regiment, having been born in Tennesee, it would make the 3rd the proper regiment to assign him to. Officially, he would have been part of the "colored" regiments but unoffically, fighting with a white regiement. The US Govt. didn't believe in integration in the Armed Forces until long after the civil war. It took Pres. Harry Truman to finally bring an end to the segregation. Alexander can not be found on the 1860 census so chances are, prior to the war, he was living as a slave.
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EXECUTIVE ORDER 9981 (1948)
Establishing the President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services

Whereas it is essential that there be maintained in the armed services of the United States the highest standards of democracy, with equality of treatment and opportunity for all those who serve in our country's defense:

Now therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, by the Constitution and the statutes of the United States, and as Commander in Chief of the armed services, it is hereby ordered as follows:

1. It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion or national origin. This policy shall be put into effect as rapidly as possible, having due regard to the time required to effectuate any necessary changes without impairing efficiency or morale.

2. There shall be created in the National Military Establishment an advisory committee to be known as the President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services, which shall be composed of seven members to be designated by the President.

3. The Committee is authorized on behalf of the President to examine into the rules, procedures and practices of the armed services in order to determine in what respect such rules, procedures and practices may be altered or improved with a view to carrying out the policy of this order. The Committee shall confer and advise with the Secretary of the Air Force, and shall make such recommendations to the President and to said Secretaries as in the judgement of the Committee will effectuate the policy hereof.

4. All executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government are authorized and directed to cooperate with the Committee in its work, and to furnish the Committee such information or the services of such persons as the Committee may require in the performance of its duties.

5. When requested by the Committee to do so, persons in the armed services or in any of the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government shall testify before the Committee and shall make available for the use of the Committee such documents and other information as the Committee may require.

6. The Committee shall continue to exist until such time as the President shall terminate its existence by Executive Order.

Harry S. Truman

Source: Fed. Register 13 (1948): 4313.
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116th Regiment, Missouri Cavalry

Organized at Springfield, Mo., November 1, 1863, from 6th Regiment Enrolled Militia. Attached to District of Southwest Missouri, Dept. Missouri, to April, 1865, and to District of North Missouri, Dept. Missouri, to July, 1865.

SERVICE.-Scout and patrol duty in District of Southeastern Missouri till April, 1865, and in North Missouri till July. Actions in Wright County July 22, 1864; Dallas County September 19; Booneville October 9-12; Big Blue or State Line October 22. Engagement at the Marmiton, or Battle of Charlot, October 25. Mine Creek, Little Osage River, Marias des Cygnes, October 25. Big Blue October 31. Skirmishes in Texas County January 9-11, 1865. Scout, Ozark County, February 16-20 (Co. "B"). Scouts from Salem and Licking to Spring River, Ark., and skirmishes, February 23-March 2. Operations about Licking March 7-25. Scouts from Licking April 1-30. Skirmish, Big Gravois, April 22. Scout from Lebanon to Warsaw May 18-26. Mustered out July 1, 1865.

Lost during service 1 Officer and 12 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 31 Enlisted men by disease. Total 45.

Predecessor unit:

MISSOURI VOLUNTEERS

6th REGIMENT PROVISIONAL ENROLLED MILITIA INFANTRY.

Duty at Springfield, Mo., and in the District of Southwest Missouri, operating against guerrillas. Bloomfield, Mo., January 27, 1863. Scout on Bennett's Bayou and skirmishes August 23, 1863 (Co. "H"). Operations against Shelby September 22-October 26. Scout from Houston to Jack's Fork November 4-9, 1863 (Detachment). Scouts from Houston December 9-19. Ordered from Springfield to Rolling Prairie February 6, 1864. Duty in Christian, Douglass, Wright, Dade and Stone Counties till July, 1864. Scout from Yellville to Buffalo River March 13-26. Operations in Southwest Missouri July 18-23 and August 1-28. Skirmish Polk County August 28. Operations against Price's invasion of Missouri September to November. Attached to 3rd Brigade, Cavalry Division, Dept. of Missouri. Moreau Creek October 7. Russellville October 9. California October 9. Near Booneville October 11-12. Little Blue October 21. Independence, Big Blue and State Line October 22. Big Blue and Westport October 23. Little Osage, Mine Creek and Marais des Cygnes October 25. Battle of the Marmiton (or Charlot) October 25. Newtonia October 28. Designation changed to 16th Missouri Cavalry November 1, 1864


  3rd Regiment, United States Colored Heavy Artillery1

"Who would be free themselves must strike the blow....I urge you to fly to arms and smite to death the power that would bury the Government and your liberty in the same hopeless grave. This is your golden opportunity.

"Once let the black man get upon his person the brass letter, U.S., let him get an eagle on his button, and a musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pocket, there is no power on earth that can deny that he has earned the right to citizenship."
Frederick Douglas


"July 17, 1862, Congress passed the Second Confiscation and Militia Act, freeing slaves who had masters in the Confederate Army. Two days later, slavery was abolished in the territories of the United States, and on July 22 President Lincoln presented the preliminary draft of the Emancipation Proclamation to his Cabinet. After the Union Army turned back Lee's first invasion of the North at Antietam, MD, and the Emancipation Proclamation was subsequently announced, black recruitment was pursued in earnest. Volunteers from South Carolina, Tennessee, and Massachusetts filled the first authorized black regiments. Recruitment was slow until black leaders such as Frederick Douglass encouraged black men to become soldiers to ensure eventual full citizenship.

In addition to the perils of war faced by all Civil War soldiers, black soldiers faced additional problems stemming from racial prejudice. Racial discrimination was prevalent even in the North, and discriminatory practices permeated the U.S. military. Segregated units were formed with black enlisted men and typically commanded by white officers and black noncommissioned officers. The 54th Massachusetts was commanded by Robert Shaw and the 1st South Carolina by Thomas Wentworth Higginson both white. Black soldiers were initially paid $10 per month from which $3 was automatically deducted for clothing, resulting in a net pay of $7. In contrast, white soldiers received $13 per month from which no clothing allowance was drawn. In June 1864 Congress granted equal pay to the U.S. Colored Troops and made the action retroactive. Black soldiers received the same rations and supplies. In addition, they received comparable medical care.

The black troops, however, faced greater peril than white troops when captured by the Confederate Army. In 1863 the Confederate Congress threatened to punish severely officers of black troops and to enslave black soldiers. As a result, President Lincoln issued General Order 233, threatening reprisal on Confederate prisoners of war (POWs) for any mistreatment of black troops. Although the threat generally restrained the Confederates, black captives were typically treated more harshly than white captives. In perhaps the most heinous known example of abuse, Confederate soldiers shot to death black Union soldiers captured at the Fort Pillow, TN, engagement of 1864. Confederate General Nathan B. Forrest witnessed the massacre and did nothing to stop it."

The National Archives, Freeman, Elsie, Wynell Burroughs Schamel, and Jean West. "The Fight for Equal Rights: A Recruiting Poster for Black Soldiers in the Civil War." Social Education 56, 2 (February 1992): 118-120.
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1Organized from 1st Tennessee Heavy Artillery (African Descent). Designated 2nd United States Colored Heavy Artillery March 11, 1864, and 3rd Heavy Artillery April 26, 1864. Attached to District of Memphis, Tenn., Dept. of Tennessee, to June, 1864. Memphis, Tenn., District of West Tennessee, to July, 1865. 2nd Infantry Brigade, District of West Tennessee, to September, 1865. District of West Tennessee to April, 1866.

SERVICE.-Served as garrison at Fort Pickering, and in Defences of Memphis, Tenn., and in District of West Tennessee till April, 1866.

Mustered out April 30, 1866.

Predecessor unit:
TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS

1st REGIMENT HEAVY ARTILLERY (AFRICAN DESCENT)

Organized at Memphis, Tenn., June, 1863. Attached to 1st Brigade, 5th Division, District of Memphis, 16th Army Corps, Dept. of the Tennessee , to April, 1864. Post and garrison duty at Memphis, and at Fort Pickering, Defences of Memphis, June, 1863, to April, 1864. Designation changed to 3rd United States Colored Heavy Artillery April 26, 1864

1 Source: National Park Service, Soldiers and Sailors System; "A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion" by Frederick H. Dyer,Cosmas; An Army for Empire : The United States Army in the Spanish American War by A. Graham, (Shippensburg, PA: White Mane Publishing Co., 1993).

 
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