Pvt Bartlet H. Baldwin
Bartlet H. Baldwin name: Baldwin, Bartlet H.
aka:  Baldwin, Bartlett H, Bart 
Rank: Pvt 
Branch: Union 
Regiment: Co. L, 14th Regiment, Illinois Cavalry
Cemetery: Oakhill Cemetery, Janesville, Rock, Wisconsin 
Service: 1/7/1863 - 6/16/1865
Birth: 7/21/1845 South Malden, (now Everett),
Notes: Son of Jonathan Baldwin and Eliza Homer, married Mary Cairns of Scottland 30 Nov 1866 in Janesville, Rock, Wisconsin.
5' 8'' tall, dark hair with hazel eyes.  
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Bartlet H. Baldwin

Prisoner at both Andersonville, Georgia (Aug-Dec 1864), then Florence South Carolina until Feb 1865
Source: Janesville Gazette Sept 2 1911
Bartlett H Baldwin, Yard-Master of the Chicago and Northwestern Railway Company, at Janesville, has been in the employ of the Company since 1865, and has occupied his present position since 1869, a period of twenty years. He was born in South Malden, (now Everett), Mass., July 21, 1845, and is the son of Jonathan and Eliza (HOMER) BALDWIN, the former a native of Massachusetts, and the latter of North Carolina. The boyhood and youth of our subject was passed in his native State. When the first gun was fired upon Fort Sumter, his heart was stirred within him and he desired at once to enter the service of his country. On account of his extreme youth his parents would not accede to his request for permission to enlist. He waited until the fall of 1861, when he could not longer withstand the urgent appeals for men,and going to Chicago, Ill., he enlisted as a private in the 69th Illinois Infantry and served three months. He then enlisted in the 14th Illinois cavalry, and was actively engaged with his regiment in all its marches, skirmishes and battles until Aug.3, 1864, when he was captured by the enemy, while engaged in the celebrated Stoneman raid. For the next seven moths his life was spent in rebel prisons, first at Macon, Ga., and later at Andersonville. His experience while in the latter prison can never be effaced from his memory. The long dreary months passed with comrades dying all around him, and seemingly no prospect of relief but at last the joyful news came that they were to be paroled or exchanged. On the 26th day of February, 1865, he left Andersonville with no regrets and was sent to Annapolis, Md., where he was paroled. Receiving a prison-of-war's furlough, he returned to his old home in Boston, Mass. where he remained a few weeks. Hearing of the assassination of Lincoln on the morning of April 15, he at once started for the front. Not having fully recovered from the effects of his confinement in Andersonville, he was sent to a convalescent hospital where he remained until June 20, 1865, when he was honorably discharged from the service, on account of his regiment being extinct, it having virtually been annihilated in the rear of Atlanta. No regiment in the service saw more hard fighting than the gallant 14th Illinois Cavalry. It was in all of Sherman's campaigns and was actively engaged in the battles of Cumberland Gap and Lookout Mountain and was with Burnside, who was besieged by Longstreet at Knoxville. On the approach of re-enforcements, Longstreet raised the siege and retreated. Mr. BALDWIN was also in the engagements at Abington, Va., Bear Station, Russellville and Barnes Crossroads. The 14th Illinois cavalry marched upwards of 10,000 miles, not counting the distance made by detachments, and was the recipient of two complimentary notices from Gen. Grant, one for exterminating Gen. Thomas' Legion of Indians, and the other for gallantry shown at the battle at Cumberland Gap.

On receiving his discharge, Mr. BALDWIN came to Janesville, where he entered the service of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company, as a switchman and served four years, when he was made yard-master and has served as such till date. On the 30th day of November, 1866, at Janesville, he married Miss Mary CAIRNS, a native of Scotland who came with her parents, Rober and Margaret (GARDNER) CAIRNS, to America in 1853. Two children have been born unto them - George Cairnes, born August, 1867, now with the Chicago & Northwestern Railway as a brakeman, between Janesville and Chicago; and Carrie Bell, born Dec. 8, 1878, now attending school in Janesville.

Mr. and Mrs. Baldwin attend the Presbyterian Church. Politically, he is a Republican. He is a member of Oriental Lodge, No. 22, K. of P, has passed all the chairs and has twice represented the lodge in the Grand Lodge of the State. Of the Royal Arcanum, he has been President, and has served the local assembly in the Grand Lodge. A member of the I.O.O.F., he has served as N.G. of the Subordinate Lodge, Chief Patriarch of the Encampment and N.G. of the Daughters of Rebecca, and was twice representative at the Grand Lodge. He is Post Commander of W. H. Sergeant Post, No. 20, G.A.R., and for fourteen years has been local agent for the I.O.O.F., Insurance Company.

A residence of nearly twenty-five years at Janesville has surrounded Mr. BALDWIN with many friends who acknowledge his worth and are pleased to award him due credit for what he is and what he has been.

Source: The Portrait and Biographical Album of Rock County, Wis. 1889, pp. 617-618

Andersonville, or Camp Sumter as it was officially known, was one of the largest of many Confederate military prisons established during the Civil War. It was built early in 1864 after Confederate officials decided to move the large number of Federal prisoners kept in and around Richmond, Virginia, to a place of greater security and a more abundant food supply . During the 14 months the prison existed, more than 45,000 Union soldiers were confined here. Of these, almost 13,000 died from disease, poor sanitation, malnutrition, overcrowding, or exposure to the elements.

Twenty years before founding the American Red Cross, Clara Barton distributed supplies and tended to the wounded and dying on Civil War battlefields. Although not the only woman engaged in such work, Barton became one of the most famous because of her efforts to identify dead and missing soldiers, especially those who perished in the Confederate prison located in Andersonville, Georgia. Due to Barton's perseverance, 12,000 graves were officially marked and Andersonville became a national cemetery on August 17, 1865. Barton, who raised the U.S. flag on that day, was overcome by emotion. She writes in her diary ''Up and there it drooped as if in grief and sadness, till at length the sunlight streamed out and its beautiful folds filled--the men stuck up the Star Spangled Banner, and I covered my face and wept.''

Florence Stockade
Dept. of Veteran Affairs, Sept 2007

During the Civil War, one of the largest prisoners of war camps was located in Florence, South Carolina, just south of the Florence National Cemetery. In the late summer and early fall of 1864, as the Federals under Major General William Tecumseh Sherman prepared to leave Atlanta for their march across Georgia to the sea, thousands of Federal prisoners of war were suffering and dying in a stockade in south Georgia. Fearing that Shermanís men might attempt to free the Union prisoners then held at Andersonville, Confederate prisoners took steps to en-sure that such an attempt would fail. All Federal prisoners who were well enough to travel were sent to Savannah and Charleston. Thousands were sent to Charleston in early September, where they were crowded on the grounds of the city jail and on a race course. Additional prisoners came in daily, despite protests by Major General Samuel Jones, commander of the makeshift camp. The number of Federals held in the city soon exceeded 7,000. An outbreak of yellow fever, which threatened to reach epidemic proportions in the city, further alarmed Jones. On September 12, 1864, he sent an officer to Florence to supervise the construction, by slave labor, of a prison stockade there.

In the fall of 1864, Florence was significant primarily as the junction of three railroads, which would facilitate the transportation of both prisoners and supplies. The prison site was located about a mile to a mile and a half southeast of Florence in an abandoned field which was surrounded by small pines, marshes, and swamps, with a small creek intersecting the stockade at about two-thirds of its length. Some 23 acres were eventually used for the stockade and grounds; a report would later state that nearly a third of the area was swampy and unfit for use.

The stockade was modeled after the one at Andersonville, in which heavy timbers were set upright three to four feet in the ground to form an enclosure. When completed, the enclosure was 1,400 feet long and 725 feet wide. An earthen rampart was constructed against the stockadeís outer wall to serve as a walkway for guards, about three feet below the top of the wall, and a ditch five feet deep and seven feet wide was dug just beyond the rampart. A dead line was marked some ten or twelve feet inside the walls of the stockade, by a ditch, a fence, or by an imaginary line. Guards were instructed to shoot, without question, any prisoner crossing that line.

Major Frederick F. Warley of the 2nd South Carolina Artillery, a veteran of the siege of Charleston and a recently exchanged prisoner from a Federal prison himself, was assigned to command the new stockade and camp. The first group of Federal prisoners arrived at Florence on September 15; however, work on the stockade had barely begun. The prisoners were herded together in an open field and guarded by just over 100 troops. When the guards allowed a few prisoners to gather firewood, a general rush was made, and guards were knocked down in all directions. As many as a few hundred prisoners escaped. Some made their way to the North, although most of them were recaptured. Warley telegraphed frantically for support. A detail of cavalry and a battery of artillery were eventually sent to his aid, and he was able to get the stockade completed enough in a few days to hold his prisoners.

Warley was soon replaced by Colonel George P. Harrison, Jr. of the 32nd Georgia Infantry, who had commanded his regiment since 1862 and had fought in South Carolina for most of the war. By the end of September, some 12,000 Federals were at Florence, many of them ill from their stays at Andersonville and at Charleston. The rations which were most often distributed to the prisoners were molasses, cornbread, and rice, with an occasional ration of beef or pork. The prisoners had no utensils to cook or eat with at first, and many of the sick became still more weak. Male nurses made rude shelters from the boughs of pine trees to shelter the sick prisoners from the sunny days and cool nights. Some prisoners had worn out the clothes issued to them at Charleston and were nearly naked. Confederate authorities were aware of these problems and attempted to correct them while struggling to keep order in the stockade and camp. Deaths in the camp were estimated at 30 a day by this time.

Harrison, after commanding the prison for a short time, rejoined his regiment in the field. He was succeeded in December by Lieutenant Colonel John F. Iverson of the 5th Georgia Infantry. He had been in charge of the prisoners on the race course in Charleston. Iversonís chief subordinate, Captain James B. Barrett, was in the actual day-to-day command of the stockade.

In November, Brigadier General John Henry Winder was given command of all Confederate prisons east of the Mississippi River and also given authority to enforce his orders. By December 1864, when he made an inspection visit to the Florence stockade, conditions had worsened to the extent that he recommended the prisonersí removal to a more secure and more healthy place. He became increasingly concerned for the survival of the Confederate prisoners in the Carolinas in late 1864 and early 1865. Winder proposed the wholesale parole of the prisoners whose terms of United States service had expired. His proposal was not approved, so he suggested several possible sites for new prisons while still attempting to improve conditions in the prisons under his command. Winder died of a heart attack on February 6, while on an inspection visit to Florence.

Colonel Henry Forno, who had been an inspector general under Winderís supervision, became commander of Confederate prisons in South Carolina. He complained in an inspection report that the guards at Florence were inefficient and stated that the quantity and quality of rations fed to the Federal prisoners needed to be improved. In spite of constant pleas, the Confederate authorities were unable to increase the rations.

As Shermanís forces advanced into South Carolina and neared Columbia in mid-February, the military situation was critical. All the prisoners who were well enough had to be removed from Florence and sent to some safer place. It was finally decided that the able-bodied Federals would be sent to Greensboro for exchange, while the sick prisoners would be sent to Wilmington for exchange. The first group of Federals left Florence on February 15 and, by the end of the month, the stockade was evacuated. It had only been in use for four and one-half months.

Estimates of the number of prisoners who died in the Florence stockade range as high as 5,900, the number claimed by a bitter ex-prisoner in his memoirs. The best figure which can now be determined from the extant records, however, is about 2,800.

  14th Regiment, Illinois Cavalry1

Organized at Peoria, Ills., and mustered in 1st and 2nd Battalions, January 7, 1863. 3rd Battalion February 6, 1863. Moved to Louisville, Ky., March 28-30, 1863 thence to Glasgow, Ky., April 12-17. Attached to 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 23rd Army Corps, Dept. of the Ohio, to August, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, 23rd Army Corps, to October, 1863. 4th Brigade, 4th Division, 23rd Army Corps, to November, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division Cavalry Corps, Dept. Ohio, to May, 1864. 3rd Brigade, Cavalry Division, District of Kentucky, Dept. Ohio, to June, 1864. 3rd Brigade, Cavalry Division, 23rd Army Corps, to August, 1864. Dismounted Cavalry Brigade, 23rd Army Corps, to September, 1864. 1st Brigade, Cavalry Division, 23rd Army Corps, to November, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 6th Division Cavalry Corps, Military Division Mississippi, to December, 1864. 1st Brigade 6th Division Cavalry Corps, Military Division Mississippi, December, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 6th Division Cavalry Corps, Military Division Mississippi, to July, 1865.

SERVICE.-Scouting in the vicinity of Glasgow, Ky., till June 22, 1863. Action at Celina, Ky., April 19. Lafayette, Tenn., May 11. Kettle Creek May 25. Expedition from Glasgow to Burkesvllle and Tennessee State line June 8-10. Kettle Creek June 9. Moved to Tompkinsville, Ky., June 22. Pursuit of Morgan July 4-26. Buffington Island, Ohio, July 19. March from Louisville to Glasgow July 27-August 6. Burnside's Campaign in East Tennessee August 16-October 17. Occupation of Knoxville, Tenn., September 1. Expedition to Cumberland Gap September 4-9. Rheatown September 12. Kingsport September 18. Bristol September 19. Zollicoffer September 20-21. Jonesborough September 21. Hall's Ford, Watauga River, September 22. Carter's Depot and Blountsville September 22. Blue Springs October 10. Henderson's Mill and Rheatown October 11. Blountsville October 14. Bristol October 15. Warm Springs October 20 and 22. Knoxville Campaign November 4-December 23. Siege of Knoxville November 17-December 5. Near Maynardsville December 1. Walkeras Ford, Clinch River, December 2. Reconnoissance to Powder Springs Gap December 2-3. Bean's Station December 14-15. Blain's Cross Roads December 16-19. Clinch River December 21. Dandridge December 24. Talbot's Station December 29. Operations about Dandridge January 16-17, 1864. Kimbrough's Cross Roads January 16. Dandridge January 17. Operations about Dandridge January 26-28. Fair Garden January 27. Fain's Island January 28. Expedition against Thompson's Legion of Whites and Cherokee Indians in North Carolina and action at Deep Creek, N. C., February 2. Flat Creek February 20. Duty in District of Kentucky till June. Action at Cittico May 27. Moved to join Stoneman June 13-19. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign June 28-September 8. Sweetwater Bridge July 3. Raid to Macon July 27-August 6. Macon and Clinton July 30. Hillsboro, Sunshine Church, July 30-31. Sunshine Church and Jug Tavern and Mulberry Creek August 3. Mostly captured. Duty at Marietta, Ga., August. Occupation of Atlanta September 2. Moved to Louisville, Ky., September 15, and duty there refitting till November. Actions at Hardison's Mills October 24. Henryville November 23. Mt. Pleasant November 23. Columbia, Duck River, November 24-27. Crossing of Duck River November 28. Franklin November 30. Battle of Nashville December 15-16. Pursuit of Hood to the Tennessee River December 17-28. Duty at Pulaski till July, 1865. Mustered out at Nashville, Tenn., July 31, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 2 Officers and 23 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 190 Enlisted men by disease. Total 215.

1 Source: National Park Service, Soldiers and Sailors System; "A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion" by Frederick H. Dyer,Cosmas; An Army for Empire : The United States Army in the Spanish American War by A. Graham, (Shippensburg, PA: White Mane Publishing Co., 1993).

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